Posts Tagged ‘diabetes in pregnancy’

Managing diabetes during pregnancy

Tuesday, March 28th, 2017

glucose screeningDiabetes is a serious health concern. About 9 out of 100 people (9 percent) in the U.S. have diabetes – a condition in which your body has too much sugar (called glucose) in the blood. Glucose is your body’s main source of fuel for energy. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. If your body does not produce insulin or cannot use it efficiently, then over time, high blood sugar can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, and nerve cells. You can develop diabetes at any time in your life, including during pregnancy.

There are three different types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults but it can develop at any age. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. In this case, your body does not make insulin or can’t use it normally. You are at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes if you are older, overweight, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise.
  • Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy. Seven out of every 100 pregnant women (7 percent) develop gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is tested for at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. It usually goes away after you give birth. However, if you have it in one pregnancy, you’re more likely to have it in your next pregnancy. You’re also more likely to develop diabetes later in life.

Managing your diabetes during pregnancy

If you have diabetes, it is very important that you control your blood sugar. High blood sugar can be harmful to your baby, especially during the first few weeks of pregnancy when the brain, heart, kidneys and lungs begin to form.

Your blood sugar is affected by pregnancy, by what you eat and drink, and how much physical activity you get. If you have preexisting diabetes (diabetes BEFORE pregnancy), what worked to control your blood sugar before you became pregnant, may not work as well during pregnancy.
Here are some things that you can do to have a healthy pregnancy:

  • Go to all your prenatal care visits, even if you’re feeling fine.
  • Follow your provider’s directions about how often to check your blood sugar. Call your provider if your blood sugar is too high or too low.
  • Tell your provider about any medicine you take, even medicine that’s not related to your diabetes. Some medicines can be harmful during pregnancy, so your provider may need to change them to ones that are safer for you and your baby.
  • If you don’t already have a registered dietician (RD), your provider can recommend one for you. An RD is a person specially trained in nutrition. An RD can help you learn what, how much and how often to eat to best control your diabetes.  She can help you make meal plans and help you know the right amount of weight to gain during pregnancy. Check to see if your health insurance covers treatment from an RD.
  • Do something active every day. With your health provider’s OK, being active every day can help you manage your diabetes.

Diabetes can be a challenge, especially when you are pregnant. But it is possible to manage it and have a healthy pregnancy.

Have questions? Email us at AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

Are you at increased risk for diabetes?

Tuesday, March 24th, 2015

pregnant women walkingDo you know that having gestational diabetes during pregnancy significantly increases a woman’s future chances of developing diabetes? About 9 out of 100 women in the U.S. have diabetes – a condition in which your body has too much sugar (called glucose) in the blood. Glucose is your body’s main source of fuel for energy. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. If your body does not produce insulin or cannot use it efficiently, then over time, high blood sugar can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, and nerve cells. You can develop diabetes at any time in your life.

There are three different types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults but it can develop at any age. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes is more common. With type 2 diabetes your body does not make or use insulin well. You are at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes is you are older, overweight, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise.
  • Gestational diabetes is a kind of diabetes that can happen during pregnancy. Seven out of every 100 pregnant women (7 percent) develop this type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after you give birth. But if you have it in one pregnancy, you’re more likely to have it in your next pregnancy. You’re also more likely to develop diabetes later in life.

Diabetes is a serious health concern, especially when left untreated or undiagnosed. Today is Diabetes Alert Day. It is designed to teach the public about the seriousness of diabetes especially when the disease is left undiagnosed or untreated.

You can find out if you’re at risk for type 2 diabetes by taking the Diabetes Risk Test. If diabetes is not diagnosed and treated the condition can lead to serious health problems including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, amputation, and even death.

The good news though is that research has shown that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in persons with increased risk by losing a small amount of weight and getting 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, five days a week. Making a few simple changes in your lifestyle can make a big difference in your health. Learn small steps you can take here.

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Polyhydramnios

Tuesday, December 13th, 2011

ultrasoundWhen a pregnant woman has polyhydramnios, the level of amniotic fluid surrounding her baby is too high. To understand why this can be a problem, it’s important to first understand the basics of amniotic fluid.

The amniotic fluid that surrounds your baby plays an important role in her growth and development. This clear-colored liquid protects the baby and provides her with fluids. Your baby actually breathes this fluid into her lungs and swallows it. This helps her lungs and digestive system grow strong. Your amniotic fluid also allows your baby to move around, which helps her to develop her muscles and bones.

The amniotic sac that contains your baby begins to form about 12 days after conception. Amniotic fluid begins to form at that time, too. In the early weeks of pregnancy, amniotic fluid is mainly made up of water supplied by the mother. After about 12 weeks, your baby’s urine makes up most of the fluid. The amount of amniotic fluid increases until about 36 weeks of pregnancy. At that time you have about 1 quart of fluid. After that time, the level begins to decrease.

Polyhydramnios (too much amniotic fluid) occurs in about 1 out of 100 of pregnancies. Most cases are mild and result from a slow buildup of excess fluid in the second half of pregnancy. But in a few cases, fluid builds up quickly as early as the 16th week of pregnancy. This usually leads to very early birth.

Polyhydramnios is diagnosed with ultrasound. Medical experts do not fully understand what causes this condition. In about half of cases, the cause is not known. Here are some of the known causes:
– Birth defects in the baby that affect the ability to swallow. Normally, when the fetus swallows, the level of amniotic fluid goes down a bit. This helps to balance out the increase in fluid caused by fetal urination.
– Heart defects in the baby
– Diabetes during pregnancy
– Infection in the baby during pregnancy
– Blood incompatabilities between the pregnant woman and the fetus (examples:
– Rh or Kell disease)

Women with mild polyhydramnios may have few symptoms. Women with more severe cases may have discomfort in the belly and breathing problems. That’s because the buildup of fluids causes the uterus to crowd the lungs and the organs in the belly.
Polyhydramnios may increase the risk of pregnancy complications such as:
– Preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) (breaks or tears in the sac that holds the amniotic fluid)
– Premature birth
– Placental abruption (The placenta peels away from the uterine wall before delivery.)
– Poor positioning of the fetus
– Severe bleeding by the mother after delivery

The best thing you can do is to go to all your prenatal care appointments. Your health care provider can monitor the size of your belly and how much amniotic fluid is in your womb. If you have a problem, your provider can take steps to help prevent complications in you and your baby.

If you have diabetes, talk to your health care provider about your increased risk of polyhydramnios.

If your health care provider thinks you might have polyhydraminos, you will probably need extra monitoring during your pregnancy. In many cases, polyhydramnios goes away without treatment. Other times, the problem may be corrected when the cause is addressed. For example, treating high blood sugar levels in women with diabetes often lowers the amount of amniotic fluid. Other treatments include removing some amniotic fluid or using medication to reduce fluid levels.

Shoulder dystocia

Tuesday, February 22nd, 2011

Dystocia means “slow or difficult labor or delivery.” Shoulder dystocia occurs when a baby’s head is delivered through the birth canal, but his shoulders are too big to get through and he gets stuck inside the mother’s body. This creates risks for both mother and baby.

Shoulder dystocia can happen when a baby is unusually large. Overweight women and women with diabetes are at risk for having very large babies, or babies with macrosomia.   It also happens when a mother’s pelvic opening is too small for the baby’s shoulders to pass through.

Although there are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, health care providers cannot usually predict or prevent it. They often discover it only after labor has begun. A pregnant woman may be at risk for shoulder dystocia if:
• Her baby is very large. (But, oddly enough, in most cases of shoulder dystocia, the baby’s weight is normal. And for most very large babies, shoulder dystocia doesn’t occur.)
• She has diabetes.
• She is pregnant with more than one baby.
• She is obese.
• She delivers after the baby’s due date.
• She has had shoulder dystocia or a very large baby during a past delivery.
Shoulder dystocia also may occur when the woman has no risk factors.

In most cases, the baby is delivered safely. Performing a cesarean section after labor has begun may be necessary, but because shoulder dystocia is hard to predict, a planned c-section is usually not recommended to prevent it.  You can read more about what happens in the delivery room and possible complications to the mother or baby at this link.