Posts Tagged ‘microcephaly’

The Zika virus: What we know and what we don’t

Wednesday, August 17th, 2016

We know that…

  • Zika infection during pregnancy can be passed to your baby. It can cause a birth defect called microcephaly and other brain problems. Also, Zika may be linked to miscarriage and stillbirth, hearing and vision problems, and joint issues.
  • the Zika virus is spread mostly through the bite of an infected mosquito, but it also can be spread by having sex with someone who is infected, and possibly through blood transfusions. Zika can be spread through laboratory exposure in a health care setting, too.
  • the mosquitoes that live in many parts of the U.S. are capable of spreading the virus if they become infected. They become infected by biting someone who has the virus. At this time, in the continental United States, mosquitoes are spreading the virus in only one area of Florida.
  • infected mosquitoes spread the virus by biting people. Roughly 4 out of 5 people who get the Zika virus don’t have any signs or symptoms and aren’t aware that they have the virus.
  • by applying bug spray/lotion for 3 weeks after you return from a Zika-affected area, or if you were diagnosed with Zika, you will help prevent the spread of Zika to others.

 We don’t know…

  • how often Zika causes microcephaly or birth defects when a baby is exposed to the virus in the womb.
  • if or when mosquitoes in other areas of the U.S. may become infected with Zika and consequently start spreading the virus.
  • when a vaccine will be available.

Here’s what you can do

The March of Dimes #ZAPzika campaign provides essential information on Zika protection that everyone should follow and share:

  1. Use spray, keep mosquitoes away: make sure it’s EPA registered, and contains at least one of mosquito_3Dthe following ingredients: DEET, Picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane-diol, or IR3535, which are safe to use during pregnancy. Don’t use products that contain oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol on children younger than 3 years. When applying, always follow the product label directions;  do not put bug spray/lotion under your clothes, and put sunscreen on first (then bug spray/lotion over sunscreen). Find a repellant that is right for you.
  1. Say you will, embrace the chill: use air conditioning and window screens if possible. Repair holes on screens.
  1. If it’s wet, it’s a threat: remove still water. Mosquitoes can breed in tiny amounts of water. To prevent water from pooling and becoming mosquito breeding grounds, the CDC says “Once a week, empty and scrub, turn over, cover, or throw out items that hold water, such as tires, buckets, planters, toys, pools, birdbaths, flowerpots, or trash containers.”
  1. Get protected, not infected: wear clothes to prevent bites, such as long pants, a long-sleeved shirt, socks, shoes, and a hat. If you or your partner may be infected with Zika, use a barrier method (like a condom) every time you have sex or don’t have sex at all.
  1. If you suspect, then connect: call your health care provider if you are at risk of infection, or if you think you may have the Zika virus.

If you are thinking about getting pregnant, CDC guidelines suggest waiting at least 6 months from the first sign or symptom if a male partner was diagnosed with the virus, and waiting at least 8 weeks from the first sign or symptom if a woman tested positive for Zika.

If you or your partner may have Zika but neither of you have signs or symptoms and neither of you has been tested, wait at least 8 weeks from when you think you may have been exposed to Zika before trying to get pregnant. Keep in mind that research is ongoing to confirm these waiting times.

If you have questions about Zika, please see our article at marchofdimes.org/zika or send them to AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

 

CDC says: First female-to-male sexual transmission of Zika virus infection reported in NYC

Friday, July 15th, 2016

Important news from the CDC today:  “The New York City report of female-to-male sexual transmission of Zika virus infection is the first documented case of sexual transmission of Zika from a woman to her sex partner and adds to the growing body of knowledge about the sexual transmission of Zika. All previously reported cases of sexually transmitted Zika virus infection have been spread from men to their sex partners.

CDC recommends that all pregnant women who have a sex partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with Zika use barrier methods every time they have sex or they should not have sex during the pregnancy. Although no cases of woman-to-woman Zika transmission have been reported, these recommendations now also apply to female sex partners of pregnant women.

CDC is currently updating recommendations for sexually active people in which the couple is not pregnant or concerned about pregnancy and for people who want to reduce personal risk of Zika infection through sex.”

You can see the CDC’s announcement here.

In our article, you can learn how to protect yourself from the Zika virus.

Have questions? Send them to AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

 

The lowdown on insect repellants

Wednesday, July 13th, 2016

Zika - bug sprayProtecting yourself from mosquito bites is key in avoiding exposure to the Zika virus. Here’s what you need to know:

  • Use an insect repellant (bug spray or lotion) that is EPA registered.
  • Products containing DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane-diol and IR3535, are safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • If you use a product containing DEET, make sure it has at least 20% DEET, and always follow the instructions on the product label.
  • Most bug sprays and lotions are safe to use on babies 2 months and older. However, DO NOT USE PRODUCTS THAT CONTAIN OIL OF LEMON EUCALPTUS OR PARA-MENTHANE-DIOL ON CHILDREN YOUNGER THAN 3 YEARS OF AGE.
  • Do not put bug spray or lotion on under clothing.
  • If you are using sunscreen, too, put it on first, before you use bug spray or lotion.

If you have recently traveled to a Zika-affected area, use bug spray or lotion for 3 weeks after you get back. This way, if you are bitten by a mosquito, it will not become infected with the Zika virus and spread it to other people.

Learn ways to #ZAPzika in our article: how to stay safe, how it can affect a baby during pregnancy, and what to do if you think you may have been exposed.

Have questions?  Send them to our health education specialists at AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

 

How mosquitoes spread the Zika virus

Wednesday, July 6th, 2016

Aedes aegypti mosquitoThe most common way the Zika virus spreads is through mosquito bites. Here are important facts to know about mosquitoes and Zika:

• The mosquitoes that spread Zika are called Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes live for about 2 to 3 weeks, indoors or outside.

• They’re called day biters because they bite most often during the day, but they also bite at night.

• These mosquitoes become infected with Zika when they bite someone who has the virus during the first week of infection.

• Three to five days after biting someone, the female lays her eggs. Mosquitoes from these eggs aren’t infected with Zika – they have to bite an infected person to become a Zika carrier.

These mosquitoes can lay their eggs in a bottle cap full of water! This is why getting rid of standing water in pet dishes, flower pots, bowls, bird baths, and other places is very important.

• The Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus live in various parts of the United States. Here is a map from the CDC of the best estimate of where these mosquitoes are or have been previously found.

Recently, there have been cases of local transmission of Zika in Florida.It is expected that mosquitoes may bite infected individuals and then spread the virus. If a pregnant woman gets Zika, she can pass it to her baby.

Zika infection during pregnancy causes a birth defect called microcephaly, which has been linked to developmental delay, intellectual disabilities, seizures and other problems.

Zika infection during pregnancy also may be linked to:

• Miscarriage

• Stillbirth

• Other birth defects, including hearing loss and problems with the eyes

• Other severe brain defects.

Even among pregnant women with no symptoms of the virus, if they test positive for Zika, their babies may be harmed.

Bottom line

We don’t know the full impact of this virus on the long term development of babies and children.

We’re urging everyone to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. Go to our websites to learn more about it:
www.marchofdimes.org/zika and www.nacersano.org/zika.

If you have any questions about the Zika virus, text or email AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

Updated: 8/11/2016

 

Zika and mosquitoes – how to protect yourself

Wednesday, June 29th, 2016

Zika mosquitoes infographic MOD

Be sure to check out our article for everything you need to know about the Zika virus and pregnancy. Learn what it is, how it spreads, signs and symptoms, how to avoid it, how it affects pregnant women and babies, and what you can do to be safe.

Questions? Text or email AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

 

The Zika virus may stop brain development causing microcephaly and birth defects

Wednesday, June 22nd, 2016

mosquito_3DWhen a woman is pregnant and is infected with the Zika virus, it may cross the placenta and may stop the development of a baby’s brain. Zika infection during pregnancy causes a birth defect called microcephaly as well as other brain problems known as “fetal brain disruption sequence.”

Microcephaly means small (micro) head (cephaly) – a baby’s head is smaller than the heads of babies of the same age and sex. Microcephaly does not always cause serious problems for a baby. But in certain cases, microcephaly can cause lasting consequences, such as intellectual and developmental disabilities. Babies born with microcephaly may have cerebral palsy, poor growth, face deformities, feeding problems, seizures, problems with hearing or vision, and hyperactivity. They may face life-threatening medical conditions. Microcephaly caused by the Zika virus may be severe and is extremely concerning.

There is no cure for microcephaly. Babies with microcephaly will need regular medical check-ups and follow up care. Many will need specialized treatment by doctors such as a neurologist, developmental and behavioral pediatrician, and rehabilitation specialists. Early intervention services for babies and toddlers as well as special education services for children ages 3 and older, may be essential in helping a child develop.

Fetal brain disruption sequence refers to the halting of the development of a baby’s brain as a result of being exposed to the Zika virus. This stop in development can result in a wide variety of health problems for the baby, which can be lifelong.

The Zika virus may also be linked to growth problems in the womb, miscarriage and stillbirth.

Vaccine progress

Currently, there are no FDA-approved vaccines to prevent Zika. But, the FDA (The US Food and Drug Administration) has approved the first Zika vaccine study in human volunteers, ahead of schedule. Clinical trials should begin in the next few weeks. Although this is great news, it could take years before a safe vaccine is available to the public.

How can you stay safe?

The Zika virus is real and dangerous. Until a vaccine is available, learn all you can about how to stay safe.

The March of Dimes maintains up-to-the-minute information and materials for women and families on our website and social media. All of our information is drawn from the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and other trusted sources, and available in both English and Spanish. Learn more at:

marchofdimes.org/zika
nacersano.org/zika

Check out our Twitter handle @modhealthtalk for the latest Zika news and Twitter chats.

You can help us spread the word about the Zika virus by passing along our bilingual factsheet which tells you how to protect yourself and others from Zika.

Have questions? Send them to AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

 

Zika and pregnancy – 3 quick facts

Monday, June 20th, 2016

Zika pregnancy infographic MOD

Be sure to check out our article for everythying you need to know about the Zika virus and pregnancy. Learn what it is, how it spreads, signs and symptoms, how to avoid it, how it affects pregnant women and babies, and what you can do to be safe.

Questions? Text or email AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

Can a mosquito cause birth defects? Listen to this interview on Zika virus and pregnancy

Tuesday, April 12th, 2016

Get the latest update on the Zika virus – what it is, how it spreads, signs and symptoms, how it can affect a pregnancy, and what you can do to stay safe.

March of Dimes Senior Vice President & Chief Medical Officer, Edward R.B. McCabe MD PhD, was interviewed by The Coffee Klatch on Blog Talk Radio. Listen to the entire interview to get answers to your Zika questions.

You can text or email your questions to AskUs@marchofdimes.org.
 

 

An update on the Zika virus – how to protect yourself

Wednesday, February 3rd, 2016

pregnant womanIt’s all over the news. Here’s what you need to know to about the Zika virus.

Understand Zika

  • If you become infected with Zika during pregnancy, it causes serious problems for your baby. Zika infection during pregnancy causes microcephaly and other serious brain problems. Zika also may be linked to miscarriage, growth problems in the womb, hearing loss and problems with the eyes.
  • You can catch the Zika virus by being bitten by an infected Aedes mosquito. Mosquitos carrying the Zika virus are found in tropical areas, such as the Americas, Southern Asia, Africa and Western pacific. See this map for an up-to-date view of Zika affected areas.
  • You may also get the Zika virus through a blood transfusion or by having sex with a man who is infected with Zika. Zika has been found in semen for at least 2 weeks and possibly up to 10 weeks after getting infected. There have been no reports of women infecting their partners.

According to the CDC:

  • A mother already infected with Zika virus near the time of delivery can pass on the virus to her newborn around the time of birth, but this is rare.
  • Zika virus can be passed from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy. We are studying how Zika affects pregnancies.
  • To date, there are no reports of infants getting Zika virus through breastfeeding. Because of the benefits of breastfeeding, mothers are encouraged to breastfeed even in areas where Zika virus is found.

Symptoms

Most people who have the Zika virus may not have any signs or symptoms. Others may have many symptoms including headache, fever, joint or muscle pain, pink eye, pain behind the eyes, rash and vomiting. If you have traveled to a Zika-affected area and have signs and symptoms, contact your health care provider.

What can you do?

Protect yourself. If you are pregnant or trying to become pregnant:

  • Don’t travel to a Zika-affected area unless you absolutely must. If you do visit these areas, talk to your health care provider before you travel.
  • Don’t have unprotected sex with a partner who may be infected with Zika or who has recently travelled to a Zika-affected area. If you do have sex, use a condom.
  • If you have plans to travel to an affected area, be sure to check the CDC’s website for advisories.

Take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Use an insect repellent (bug spray) but be sure to follow these tips:

  • Choose one that’s registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (also called EPA). All EPA-registered insect repellents are checked to make sure they’re safe and work well. These sprays contain substances, like DEET, picaridin and oil of lemon eucalyptus, that are safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Carefully follow the instructions on the product label.
  • If you use sunscreen, put sunscreen on first and then the bug spray.
  • Don’t put insect repellent on your skin under clothes.

Learn other important tips for protecting yourself and your family from mosquito bites on our website.

Speak out and tell Congress there’s no time to lose! Urge Congress to pass Zika funding to prevent Zika from gaining a foothold in the U.S.

If you have been exposed to Zika

Contact your health care provider if you have been exposed to Zika. He may test your blood for signs of the virus.

If you have lived in or traveled to a Zika-affected area and have given birth, or if your baby has symptoms of the Zika virus, seek medical attention. Your baby’s provider will follow guidelines for testing and management.

Bottom line

Zika is a very serious virus that causes microcephaly. Read our article for more detailed information, including how Zika spreads, signs and symptoms of the disease, who should get tested, what to do if you travelled to or live in a Zika affected area, and what to do if you think your baby may be affected.

Pregnant? Trying to conceive? See the CDC’s Q/A page on Zika and pregnant women.

Have more questions? Send them to AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

Updated April 14, 2016