Posts Tagged ‘tetralogy of fallot’

What is tetralogy of Fallot?

Friday, May 5th, 2017

You have probably heard about Jimmy Kimmel’s baby, Billy, being born with a critical congenital heart defect called tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Fortunately, Billy received lifesaving heart surgery and is home from the hospital, reportedly doing well.

Congenital heart defects are the most common types of birth defects. Nearly 1 in 100 babies (about 1 percent or 40,000 babies) is born with a heart defect in the United States each year. And critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a group of the seven most severe congenital heart defects. About 4,800 babies each year are born with a CCHD. Babies with CCHD need treatment within the first few hours, days or months of life. Without treatment, CCHD can be deadly.

TOF is a rare congenital heart defect that affects about 1,660 babies each year in the United States. Babies born with this condition actually have four different problems with their heart. According to the CDC, they are:

  1. A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers―or ventricles―of the heart. This condition also is called a ventricular septal defect.
  2. A narrowing of the pulmonary valve and main pulmonary artery. This condition also is called pulmonary stenosis.
  3. The aortic valves, which opens to the aorta, is enlarged and seems to open from both ventricles, rather than from the left ventricle only, as in a normal heart. In this defect, the aortic valve sits directly on top of the ventricular septal defect.
  4. The muscular wall of the lower right chamber of the heart (right ventricle) is thicker than normal. This also is called ventricular hypertrophy.

Signs and Symptoms

After birth, signs and symptoms of heart defects can include:

  • Fast breathing
  • Gray or blue skin coloring (also called cyanosis)
  • Fatigue (feeling tired all of the time)
  • Slow weight gain
  • Swollen belly, legs or puffiness around the eyes
  • Trouble breathing while feeding
  • Sweating, especially while feeding
  • Abnormal heart murmur (unusual sounds heard during a heartbeat)

Diagnosis

TOF can be diagnosed during pregnancy or after birth. During a prenatal ultrasound a doctor may be able to determine that there is a problem with the baby’s heart. A fetal echocardiogram (an ultrasound of just the heart) would then be ordered for further testing. An echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the baby’s heart that can show problems with the structure of the heart and how the heart is working.

However, TOF is usually diagnosed after the baby is born. In most cases, health care providers detect a heart murmur (often a “whooshing” sound heard between heartbeats) or cyanosis (baby’s skin turns blue).

To confirm the presence of a CCHD, a health care provider will order an echocardiogram.

TOF and CCHD can also be detected with newborn screening. Newborn screening checks for serious but rare conditions at birth. It includes blood, hearing and heart screening. All states require newborn screening, but they don’t all require screening for CCHD. Babies are screened for CCHD with a test called pulse oximetry (also called pulse ox). This test checks the amount of oxygen in your baby’s blood using a sensor attached to his finger or foot.

Treatment

Babies born with TOF need to have surgery soon after they are born to widen the pulmonary valve. This allows the blood to reach the lungs and become oxygenated. They will also correct the hole between the lower chambers of the heart. And additional surgeries to replace valves may also be required.

Most babies born with TOF go on to be active and healthy, but they will need to be followed by a cardiologist throughout their lives. We’re glad Jimmy Kimmel’s baby received prompt care and continues to do well.

Research

Heart defects develop in the early weeks of pregnancy when the heart is forming, often before you know you’re pregnant and most of the time, there is no known cause of a congenital heart defect. That is why many March of Dimes grantees are pursuing a variety of approaches aimed at preventing heart defects and improving their treatment.

Critical congenital heart disease, CCHD

Thursday, February 13th, 2014

Critical congenital heart disease (also called CCHD) is a group of the seven most severe heart defects present at birth. They may affect the shape of a baby’s heart, the way it works, or both. Babies with CCHD need treatment within the first few hours, days or months of life. Without treatment, CCHD can be deadly.

About 4,800 babies in the U.S. each year are born with CCHD. These seven heart defects are part of CCHD: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS); Pulmonary atresia (PA); Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF); Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPV, or TAPVR); Transposition of the great arteries (TGA); Tricuspid atresia (TA); Truncus arteriosus.

February 7-14 is Congenital Heart Defects (CHD) Awareness Week. The March of Dimes is working to help identify and understand these defects through research. We also are advocating Congress to reauthorize the Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act. To learn more about these CCHDs, several other types of congenital heart defects, possible causes and risk factors, and treatment options, read our article at this link.

Congenital heart defects

Friday, December 18th, 2009

There have been some painful posts and resulting discussion this week on congenital heart defects (CHD) on Twitter. So I thought it would be a good idea to provide some background information about these conditions and what the March of Dimes is doing to help.

About 35,000 infants (1 out of every 125) are born with heart defects each year in the United States. The term congenital heart defect is a general term used to describe many types of rare heart disorders. The term congenital heart defect is not a diagnosis in itself. Some of the most common heart defects include: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), septal defects, coarctation of the aorta, heart valve abnormalities, tetralogy of fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Click here to learn more.

Over the past ten years, the March of Dimes has invested over $36 million in heart related research, including CHDs.  A number of scientists funded by the March of Dimes are studying genes that may underlie specific heart defects. The goal of this research is to better understand the causes of congenital heart defects, in order to develop ways to prevent them. Grantees also are looking at how environmental factors (such as a form of vitamin A called retinoic acid) may contribute to congenital heart defects. One grantee is seeking to understand why some babies with serious heart defects develop brain injuries, in order to learn how to prevent and treat them.

If you have questions or concerns about a specific birth defect, please drop us a note at AskUs@marchofdimes.org and we’ll gladly provide you with information.