Archive for the ‘Baby’ Category

Formula switching- what you need to know

Friday, March 27th, 2015

bottle-feedingMoms may decide to change formula brands for a variety of different reasons. My friend recently told me she bought a new formula for her baby because she had a coupon for a different brand. Her baby was not able to digest the new formula as well as the old brand; she did not anticipate that changing formula brands would be a problem for her baby.

Here are some tips to keep in mind if you are thinking of switching formula brands.

First of all, there are several basic types of formula in your local grocery store:

• Cow’s milk-based formulas: Made of treated cow’s milk that has been changed to make it safe for infants.
• Hydrolyzed formulas: often called “predigested” meaning the protein content has already been broken down for easier digestion.
• Soy formulas: contain a protein (soy) and carbohydrate (either glucose or sucrose), which is different from milk-based formulas. Soy formulas do not contain cow’s milk.
• Specialized formulas – for infants with specific disorders or diseases. There are also formulas made specifically for premature babies. Often babies who are allergic to lactose (found in cow’s milk) or soy protein may need a specialized formula.

Formula can also be found in three different forms: Ready-to-feed liquid (which can be fed to your baby immediately), concentrated liquid or powder (which needs to be mixed with water before feeding). Be sure to learn the do’s and don’ts of bottle preparation and feeding.

Reasons to change formula

Some reasons to switch formulas are if your baby has a food allergy or needs more iron in her diet. Switching may also help your baby if she has diarrhea, is fussy or hard to soothe. Your baby’s doctor can determine if switching the formula may help, or if there is some other medical condition going on that is causing your baby’s distress. But, before switching your baby’s formula, speak with her pediatrician.

It is possible for a baby to have an allergic reaction to a formula. Reactions include:

• vomiting
• diarrhea
• abdominal pain
• rash
• hives (itchy, red bumps on the skin)

These, and other symptoms may be a sign to change formulas, or they may also be a sign of something unrelated to your baby’s formula. If the reaction is unrelated to the formula, changing formulas could make your baby’s symptoms worse. This is why it’s important to always talk to your baby’s health care provider before making any changes.

If your doctor gives you the OK to switch formulas, he will recommend a plan of action on how to introduce the new formula so that the transition goes as smoothly as possible.

Keep in mind

All formulas made in the U.S. are regulated by the Food and Drug administration and meet strict guidelines, but always check the expiration date on the formula packaging and don’t use damaged cans or bottles.

For more information see this blog post.

Avoid a tragedy – learn safe sleep strategies

Wednesday, March 25th, 2015

cropped sleeping babyEvery so often, we hear a tragic story from a new parent. Last week, a three week old baby died of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). This post is in memory of that baby, and our hearts go out to the family.

It is important for parents and caregivers to know safe sleep strategies. Please help us get the word out: ALWAYS, put your baby to sleep on her back, in a crib without bumpers, blankets, stuffed toys or loose bedding.

Back to Sleep and Tummy to Play is an easy way to remember that all healthy babies should be put to sleep on their backs every time until their first birthday. Do not put your baby to sleep on her side, either. Most babies will roll over both ways by the end of the 7th month, but always start them out going to sleep on their backs. You can give your baby tummy time to help strengthen her back muscles when she is awake and you are watching her.

About 4,000 infants (less than one year of age) die suddenly and unexpectedly each year in the United States, according to the CDC. SIDS is the leading cause of death in babies between 1 month and 1 year old. Most SIDS cases happen in babies between 2 and 4 months old. We don’t know what causes SIDS, but certain things can put babies at higher risk:

  • Bed sharing – do not sleep in the same bed as your baby. Sleeping in the same room is suggested, just not the same bed. Bed sharing is the biggest risk factor for SIDS in babies under 4 months of age.
  • Sofa or couch sleeping – do not let your baby sleep on the couch or soft surfaces, including pillows. Nearly 13 percent of infant sleeping deaths are sofa-related.
  • Wearing too many clothes or sleeping in a room that is too hot.
  • Sleeping on her tummy or side.

Read more about safe sleep, mom and baby care and other tips for reducing the risk of SIDS.

If you have questions about putting your baby to sleep, send them to AskUs@marchofdimes.org or ask your baby’s health care provider.

If you or someone you know has lost a baby due to SIDS or an unknown reason, the Pregnancy and Newborn Health Education Center offers bereavement packets to families. Just email us with your mailing address and we will send one to you.

See other topics in the series on Delays and Disabilities- How to get help for your child, here.

Newborn screening for Pompe disease

Friday, March 20th, 2015

newborn-screening-picture1Early detection for Pompe disease through newborn screening will allow affected infants to receive prompt life-saving medical interventions. March of Dimes chapters across the country will be advocating for the addition of Pompe disease to newborn screening panels to ensure that all newborns can benefit from this potentially life-saving test.

The US Secretary of Health and Human Services recently added Pompe disease to the federal Recommended Uniform Screening Panel. Pompe disease can be identified using the traditional newborn screening dried bloodspot and this early identification will lead to earlier treatment.

What is Pompe disease?

Pompe disease is a rare inherited disorder that causes progressive muscle weakness. It is due to changes in the gene that produces an enzyme called GAA. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down sugars. Infants and children with Pompe disease cannot produce GAA. Therefore sugars accumulate in the muscles, and this causes the muscles to get weaker and not work the way they should. This muscle weakness affects feeding, weight gain, movement, and even the heart. Pompe disease occurs in about 1 in 28,000 people in the U.S.

Infants with Pompe disease can seem healthy at first, but without early medical intervention, the disease will progress rapidly. Many children with Pompe disease do not survive past the first year of life. However, research has shown that early detection and treatment of Pompe disease can lead to better outcomes.

Treatments, including enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), can lead to a longer life and fewer disease complications. But for ERT to be most effective, it must be started before the onset of severe symptoms. Research suggests that the success rate of ERT for Pompe disease is higher if a newborn can receive treatment within the first three months of life.

The March of Dimes supports screening all newborns for conditions placed on the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel. All the conditions included on the Uniform Screening Panel have shown that an affected infant benefits from early detection and treatment; there is a reliable screening test for the disorder; and early detection can be made from newborn bloodspots or other means.

Steps to take if your child is accidentally poisoned

Monday, March 16th, 2015

Poison prevention weekGrowing up my brother was a sneaky toddler who was always climbing and crawling all around the house. One story I always remembered hearing was how he used a chair to climb up on the counter and into a cabinet to grab a vitamin bottle while my mom was changing my sister’s diaper. The chewable, pink candy-tasting vitamins enticed him so much, he started eating handfuls. It wasn’t until he threw them up hours later that my parents realized what had happened and rushed him to the hospital.

Even when you take precautions to keep potentially dangerous items out of your little one’s reach, accidents happen. It’s important to be prepared.

Steps to take

If your child is unconscious or has trouble breathing, call 9-1-1.

If you think your child may have been poisoned, stay calm and call the toll-free Poison Help Line at 1-800-222-1222, which connects you to a local poison center. Do not wait for signs of poisoning before calling the Poison Help Line. Even if you are not sure if your child has consumed chemicals, medicine or household items, make the call. A poison expert will be on the other end of the line to assist you.

More than 2 million poisonings are reported each year to poison control centers across the country. More than 90 percent of these poisonings occur in the home and the majority of non-fatal poisonings occur in children younger than six years old. Put the poison help line number in your cell phone and read through this emergency checklist to be prepared if a possible poisoning ever happens.

How to keep your child safe

Medication bottles with easy-open lids can be opened by a toddler in less than a minute. It’s important that you child-proof your home and always remember to lock up medications and cleaning supply bottles.

 

What is trisomy?

Friday, March 6th, 2015

chromosomes1Trisomy is a condition in which individuals are born with an extra copy of a specific chromosome in most or all of their cells. This means that they have three copies of a given chromosome in each cell rather than the typical number, which is two.

Chromosomes are the structures in cells that contain genes. Each person normally has 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 in all. An individual inherits one chromosome from the mother’s egg and one from the father’s sperm. When an egg and sperm join together, they normally form a fertilized egg with 46 chromosomes.

Sometimes something goes wrong before fertilization. A developing egg or sperm cell may divide incorrectly, causing that egg or sperm to have an extra chromosome. When this cell joins with a normal egg or sperm cell, the resulting embryo has 47 chromosomes instead of 46.

There are a variety of health conditions that may be associated with trisomy. Common physical problems for individuals with a trisomy include heart defects, vision or hearing problems, and intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Although trisomy can occur with any chromosome, there are three conditions that are most often associated with an extra chromosome. They are:

  • Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome: Down syndrome is one of the most common birth defects. In the US, about 6,000 babies (or 1 in 700) are born with Down syndrome each year. Most affected individuals have intellectual disabilities within the mild to moderate range. Although health conditions such as heart defects and vision and hearing problems are associated, most of these can be treated, and life expectancy is now about 60 years
  • Trisomy 18 is also called Edward syndrome. Trisomy 18 occurs in about 1 in 5,000 live births each year. Affected individuals may have heart defects, significant intellectual and developmental delay, and other life-threatening medical problems.
  • Trisomy 13, also known as Patau syndrome, occurs in about 1 in 10,000 to 16,000 live births each year worldwide. Individuals with trisomy 13 often have heart defects, brain or spinal cord abnormalities, severe intellectual and developmental disabilities, and multiple physical problems in many parts of the body.

It is important to understand that every individual with a trisomy is unique and not all of them will have the same symptoms. The problems depend on which chromosome is duplicated and how much of the extra chromosome is present.

March of Dimes grantees are studying basic biological processes of development to better understand the process of early cell division and how a trisomy may occur. In the past five years, the March of Dimes has invested $5,274,554 in trisomy research.

World BD day gets word out globally

Wednesday, March 4th, 2015

Sick babyThe twitter-sphere was all aglow yesterday for the first-ever World Birth Defects Day. In fact, 6,154,146 people were reached worldwide! Yup. It’s not a typo.

Twelve leading global organizations including the March of Dimes, along with scores of other foundations, hospitals, health care providers, government agencies, parents and individuals with birth defects took to Twitter to raise awareness. People in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, England, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Netherlands, Panama, Philippines, Rwanda, Scotland, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, and individuals from all over the United States participated. As the day progressed, #worldbdday tweets continually popped up on my computer screen. In case you missed it, here is a snapshot of important messages.

Birth defects are surprisingly common

Did you know that every 4 ½ minutes a baby is born with a birth defect in the US?

In the US, about 1 in 5 babies die before their 1st birthday due to birth defects.

Birth defects affect 1 in 33 infants worldwide.

More than 8 million babies worldwide are born each year with a serious birth defect.

There are thousands of different birth defects, and about 70% of the causes are unknown.

The most common birth defects are heart defects, neural tube defects and Down syndrome.

In the US, a baby is born with a congenital heart defect every 15 minutes.

More than 300,000 major birth defects of the brain and spine occur worldwide each year.

Many birth defects are discovered after the baby leaves the hospital or within the 1st year of life.

More than 3.3 million children under 5 years of age die from birth defects each year.

Babies who survive & live with birth defects are at an increased risk for long-term disabilities & lifelong challenges.

Early intervention services may help babies w/ BDs; get your child help by starting early.

Birth defects are costly. Financial and emotional costs of birth defects take a toll on families and communities worldwide.

Learn how to decrease your risk of having a baby with birth defects

Taking folic acid before & early in pregnancy can help to reduce the risk for BDs of the brain & spine.

Smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of certain BDs. It’s never too late to quit.

We can’t prevent all birth defects. We CAN prevent FASD! (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders)

FASDs are 100% preventable.

Alcohol can cause your baby to have BDs (heart, brain & other organs). Don’t drink if you are pregnant or trying to conceive.

Being overweight before pregnancy can increase the risk for some birth defects.

Not all BDs are preventable, but women can take steps toward a healthy pregnancy.

Make a PACT: plan ahead, avoid harmful substances, choose a healthy lifestyle, and talk to your doctor.

Raise awareness

Awareness of birth defects & the importance of care for children with these lifelong conditions is key.

The mission of the March of Dimes is to prevent birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality.

March of Dimes has invested more than $50 million in birth defects research in the last 5 years.

Genetics has long been a main theme of March of Dimes research.

MOD grantees have discovered genes that cause or contribute to a number of common birth defects, including fragile X syndrome, cleft lip and palate, and heart defects.

These discoveries pave the way for treatments and preventions for these birth defects.

 

For more information, email AskUs@marchofdimes.org. See other topics in the series on Delays and Disabilities- How to get help for your child, here.

Caring for your baby’s teeth

Friday, February 27th, 2015

teethTooth decay is the most common preventable chronic disease among children in the United States. If left untreated, it can negatively affect a child’s physical and social development, as well as his school performance.

Did you know you can start to clean your baby’s teeth and gums as soon as he is born? Here are some tips from the American Dental Association (ADA):

• Before your baby has teeth, wipe the gums with a clean, moist gauze pad or washcloth.
• Most babies get their first tooth at around 6 months. It is important to remember that as soon as teeth appear, decay can occur. So once your baby has teeth, start brushing them.
• Use a soft-bristle toothbrush and ask your baby’s dentist if you should be using a toothpaste that contains fluoride.
• Teeth should be brushed twice per day (morning and night) or as directed by a dentist or health care provider. Once your child is old enough to brush on his own (or wants to give it a try) make sure you watch him closely.
• As soon as he has two teeth that touch, you can begin flossing daily.

Once your baby’s first tooth comes in, it is time to schedule a trip to the dentist. The ADA recommends that the first dental visit take place within six months after the first tooth appears, but no later than a child’s first birthday. Although the dentist will check your baby’s mouth, teeth, and gums, this visit is really more about getting your child comfortable with the dentist.

When it is time to schedule your child’s first dental appointment, you can ask your dentist if she sees children. If not, you can find a pediatric dentist who specializes in treating babies, children and teens. Also, all children enrolled in Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) have coverage for dental services – including check-ups, x-rays, fluoride treatments, dental sealants, fillings, and more. Check out your state’s complete list of dental benefits for children in Medicaid and CHIP.

You can read more about your baby’s dental health on our website. Starting healthy dental habits early will help protect your baby’s teeth for a lifetime.

March 3rd is the first ever World Birth Defects Day

Wednesday, February 25th, 2015

WBDD_LogoFamilies frequently write to the March of Dimes and share a story about their child’s struggle with a birth defect. Often, they ask what else they can do to help raise awareness. Well, here is a great way to get involved.

Help us mark the first World Birth Defects Day by participating in social media activities and sharing a story about the impact of birth defects on you and your family.

The March of Dimes and 11 other international organizations, including the CDC and the WHO, have created the first-ever World Birth Defects Day on March 3rd. We hope to raise awareness of this serious global problem and advocate for more prevention, care and research to help babies and children.

Birth defects affect 1 in 33 infants worldwide. Half of these birth defects will be detected soon after birth; the other half will be diagnosed during the first year of life. Birth defects are a major cause of death in infants and young children. Babies who survive are at an increased risk for life-long disabilities.

We need you.

On March 3rd, share your story about the impact of birth defects on you, your child or someone you know. With our partners, we’ll be urging governments, non-governmental organizations, policymakers, researchers, and health care providers around the world to help us work together toward a healthier future for children.

What can you do?

1.  Post an announcement on your blog, Facebook, Twitter or other social media platform.

2.  Register to be a part of the World Birth Defects Day Thunderclap. A message will be sent out at 9:00 a.m. EST on March 3 to help raise awareness.

3.  Join the Buzzday on Twitter on March 3rd. Plan to send one or more messages using the #WorldBDDay tag at some point during the day. Retweet both promotional and day-of messages to build our buzz for the day.

We look forward to having you join the conversation. Together, we can make strides to improve knowledge and raise awareness.

For more information, email AskUs@marchofdimes.org. See other topics in the series on Delays and Disabilities- How to get help for your child, here.

Peanut allergies in children

Tuesday, February 24th, 2015

Peanuts or no peanuts? That is the question many new parents ask themselves as they look at the ingredients in their baby’s food. When I started my babies on solid foods, I remember hovering over them for days at a time, scanning every square inch of their skin to see if there was any sign of a food allergy. Over the last 10 years, the number of children with peanut allergies has doubled, causing many parents, like me, to wonder at what age is it OK to begin giving children foods made with peanuts.

A recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine finds that giving your baby foods made with peanuts in the first year of life may actually help prevent peanut allergies later in life. The study involved over 600 babies and followed them until they reached age 5. These babies had a history of egg allergy or eczema, a condition that causes patches of dry, red and itchy skin. Some babies were given foods made with peanuts and other babies avoided these foods until they turned age 5. The study found that babies who were given foods made with peanuts were less likely to develop peanut allergies than babies who avoided these foods until they were older.

More research needs to be done to understand peanut and other kinds of food allergies. In the meantime, talk to your baby’s health provider if you have concerns about food allergies. As you start your baby on solid foods, give her one kind of food at a time and wait a few days before trying a new food. If your baby has signs of an allergic reaction, contact her health provider. Introducing new foods one at a time may help you find out which food caused an allergic reaction.

From NICU to EI services

Wednesday, February 18th, 2015

preemie hand in adult handIf your baby was born prematurely or at a low birth weight, chances are he or she may benefit from Early Intervention (EI) services. EI services are designed to help your baby catch up developmentally. They can include speech, physical or occupational therapy, as well as other kinds of treatment.

Usually, the hospital NICU staff will give you the information to have your baby screened or evaluated so that services may begin soon after your baby gets home (if they are needed). But, parents – you should know that a doctor or hospital referral is not needed to start the process of requesting early intervention services. You can contact your state’s agency yourself. Although it is very helpful for hospitals to give parents all of the information they need to get services started early, a hospital referral is not a requirement for a screening.

Read this post on Early intervention for babies and toddlers to learn how to request a screening. In many cases, a phone call to your state’s early intervention program is all you need to initiate an evaluation (which is free of charge to you). EI services are available in every state and territory of the United States.

Don’t delay with delays. The sooner your baby gets help, the sooner he can start catching up. If you are concerned about your baby’s development, make the call, get the free screening, and put your mind at rest.

See other topics in the Delays and Disabilities series here.