Posts Tagged ‘eyes’

Retinopathy of prematurity

Friday, August 25th, 2017

If you have a premature baby, you may have heard of retinopathy of prematurity or ROP. ROP is an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye.

During the last 12 weeks of pregnancy, the eye develops quickly. When a baby is born full-term, the growth of the blood vessels that supply the retina is almost complete. The retina then typically finishes growing the first few weeks after birth.

However, if a baby is born too early, the blood vessels may stop growing or not grow correctly. These vessels can then leak and cause bleeding in the eye. Scar tissue forms, and if the scars shrink, they may pull the retina loose from the back of the eye. This is called retinal detachment. Retinal detachment is the main cause of vision problems and blindness in ROP.

Risk factors for ROP

Some babies are more likely to develop ROP. Risk factors include:

  • Premature birth. Although all premature babies are at risk for ROP, it occurs most often in babies born before 30 weeks of pregnancy.
  • Apnea. This is when a baby’s breathing stops for 15 to 20 seconds or more.
  • Anemia. This is when the body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the rest of the body.
  • Heart disease
  • Infection
  • Trouble breathing or respiratory distress
  • Slow heart rate (also called bradycardia)
  • Problems with the blood, including having blood transfusions.

How is ROP diagnosed?

Your baby will get a special eye exam for ROP if she:

  • Was born before 30 weeks
  • Weighed less than 3 pounds at birth
  • Has any other risk factors for ROP

A pediatric ophthalmologist will examine your baby’s eyes. Babies born at 27 weeks or later usually have their first eye exam when they’re 4 weeks old. Babies born before 27 weeks usually have the exam later, because the more premature a baby is at birth, the longer it takes to develop serious ROP. Because ROP can develop later, it’s very important to take your baby to all of her eye exams, even after she is home from the NICU.

If your baby’s first eye exam shows that the blood vessels in both retinas have finished normal development, she doesn’t need a follow-up exam. If your baby’s eye exam shows that she has ROP and needs treatment, she should start treatment within 72 hours. Early treatment gives your baby the best chance of having healthy vision.

Treatment

Most mild cases of ROP heal without treatment and with little or no vision loss. In more severe cases, the ophthalmologist may perform laser therapy or do a procedure called cryotherapy (freezing) to eliminate abnormal blood vessels and scars. Both treatments help protect the retina.

If your baby has ROP, visit our online community at Share Your Story to connect with other parents for support and comfort throughout your baby’s treatment.

Have questions? Email us at AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

Understanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)

Friday, November 4th, 2016

baby-eyesRetinopathy of prematurity is an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye. It mainly affects babies weighing about 2¾ pounds (1250 grams) or who are born before 31 weeks of pregnancy. ROP affects about 14,000-16,000 babies in the United States each year. If your baby has ROP, getting treatment right away is really important. The disease can develop very quickly and cause vision problems or even blindness if it’s not treated.

What causes ROP?

During the last 12 weeks of pregnancy, the eye develops quickly. When a baby is born full-term, the growth of the blood vessels that supply the retina is almost complete. The retina then typically finishes growing the first few weeks after birth.

However, if a baby is born too early, the blood vessels may stop growing or not grow correctly. Scientists believe that the edge of the retina then sends signals to other areas of the retina for nourishment. This results in abnormal vessels growing. These abnormal vessels are fragile and can bleed easily and cause retinal scarring. If the scars shrink, they pull on the retina and cause it to detach.

Risk factors for ROP

Some things make a baby more likely than others to have ROP. They include:

  • Premature birth.
  • Apnea. This is when a baby’s breathing stops for 15 to 20 seconds or more.
  • Anemia. This is when the body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the rest of the body.
  • Heart disease
  • Infection
  • Trouble breathing or respiratory distress
  • Slow heart rate (also called bradycardia)
  • Problems with the blood, including having blood transfusions.

Stages of ROP

ROP is classified into 5 stages:

  • Stage 1 – Mildly abnormal blood vessel growth. These babies often get better without treatment and go on to have healthy vision.
  • Stage 2 – Moderately abnormal blood vessel growth. These babies often get better without treatment and go on to have healthy vision.
  • Stage 3 – Severely abnormal blood vessel growth. Some of these babies get better without treatment, but others develop a condition called plus disease. This means the retina’s blood vessels get big and twisted. Plus disease is a sign that ROP is getting worse, but treatment can help prevent retinal detachment.
  • Stage 4 – Severely abnormal blood vessel growth and part of the retina detaches. These babies need treatment because part of the retina pulls away from the inside wall of the eyeball.
  • Stage 5 – Total retinal detachment. The retina is completely pulled away from the inside wall of the eyeball. Without treatment, a baby can have severe vision problems or blindness.

Treatment options

Laser or cryotherapy are the most effective treatments for ROP. Laser treatment uses a laser to burn and scar the sides of the retina. This stops abnormal blood vessel growth and prevents scarring and pulling on the retina. Cryotherapy uses a metal probe to freeze the sides of the retina, thereby preventing additional blood vessel growth.

Laser treatments and cryotherapy are done on babies with more advanced ROP, such as stage III.

Later stages of ROP require more intense treatments. Scleral buckle involves placing a silicone band around the white of your baby’s eye (called the sclera). This band helps push the eye in so that the retina stays along the wall of the eye. The buckle is removed later as the eye grows. If it isn’t removed, a child can become nearsighted. This means he has trouble seeing things that are far away.

In a vitrectomy, the doctor removes the clear gel in the center of your baby’s eye (called the vitreous) and puts saline (salt) solution in its place. Your baby’s provider can then take out scar tissue, so that the retina doesn’t pull. Only babies with stage 5 ROP have this surgery.

About 90% of infants with ROP fall into the mild categories and do not need treatment. But ROP can get worse quickly so early diagnosis and appropriate treatment (if needed) are very important. Your baby should be seen by a pediatric ophthalmologist. This is a doctor who identifies and treats eye problems in babies and children. The first eye exam should take place 4 to 9 weeks after birth, depending on when your baby was born.

You can read more about ROP on our website.

If your baby has ROP, visit our online community at Share Your Story to find a network of parents of babies with ROP. You can connect with them for support and comfort throughout your baby’s treatment.

Have questions? Text or email us at AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

Keeping your child’s eyes safe

Friday, August 29th, 2014

eyeDid you know that August is Children’s Eye Health and Safety month? According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, “nine out of ten eye injuries are preventable, and almost half occur around the home.” Here are some safety guidelines from AAP to help prevent eye injuries:
• Make sure that any chemicals, such as detergents and cleaning fluids, are kept out of reach of children.
• Take a look at your children’s toys and watch out for sharp parts, especially for very young children.
• Teach your children how to hold scissors and pencils properly when they are young. That way as they get older, they will maintain these good habits.
• Looking directly into the sun can cause severe eye damage. And make sure that they never look directly at an eclipse of the sun.
• If you are working around the house with tools, either your child should not be in the area, or she should wear safety goggles.
• Keep your child away from power lawn mowers. These can launch rocks or other objects, making them dangerous projectiles.
• If your child is playing sports, make sure she is wearing eye protection that is appropriate for the sport.
• Children should be kept far away if you are lighting fires. And your child should NEVER be near fireworks of any kind.

Typically if dust or other small particles get in the eye, tears will actually clean the eye and wash them out. However, if a more serious eye injury occurs, make sure you call your pediatrician or go to the emergency room right away. For more information, you can read our previous post about healthy eye care for your baby and child.

If you have questions, feel free to email us at AskUs@marchofdimes.org.

Click here to read more News Moms Need blog posts on: pregnancy, pre-pregnancy, infant and child care, help for your child with delays or disabilities, and other hot topics.

Recall: Toy wind chimes, several models

Thursday, February 11th, 2010

tiny-love-wind-chimeThe U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has announced the recall of 600,000 wind chime toys made by Tiny Love. The toy can be pulled apart, exposing sharp metal rods. These rods can cut or puncture a baby’s skin or eyes. For more information, read the CPSC statement.

Several types of wind chimes have been recalled. The picture shown here is one of them.

Babies blink less than grown ups

Thursday, December 11th, 2008

Ever notice that babies sometimes stare off into space for long periods of time without blinking too much?

The New York Times recently published an article about this phenomenon. Some studies reveal that on average, babies blink fewer than twice a minute. On the other hand, adults blink 10-15 times a minute.

One theory as to why babies blink less often is that it takes longer for them to process what they see because their vision is still developing.

Another theory is that their little peepers don’t need as much protection from dirt and debris as adults do. That’s because their eyes are much smaller than ours and are closed more often from sleeping. When our eyes are closed, they are lubricated with tears to help get rid of any dirt that might be there.

Isn’t that a neat little factoid?