A targeted or advanced ultrasound usually follows after a standard ultrasound if the provider has seen something questionable and wants to take a closer look at it. This exam is more thorough than a standard ultrasound and can take from 30 minutes to a couple of hours. Among other things, it provides a more detailed view of the baby’s head and spine and is 95% effective in diagnosing neural tube defects like spina bifida. It includes a full body scan measuring all of the long bones, identifying major organs, including the heart and brain, nose and mouth.
Doppler imaging is a technique that can measure tiny changes occurring within the body, such as the speed and direction of blood flow. Sound waves bounce off moving red blood cells and produce an image of blood flow, something a standard ultrasound cannot do. Women with high blood pressure may receive an ultrasound with Doppler imaging of the umbilical artery to see if the blood flow to the baby or placenta is as it should be or if it is being compromised in some way.
Fetal echocardiography uses ultrasound to take a closer look at a developing baby’s heart. It offers a far more detailed view of the heart and provides information about its structure and rhythm. Women who are at increased risk of having a baby with a congenital heart defect may be offered this scan. It can provide valuable information about the anatomy and function of different parts of the heart, such as the valves, and is often used to rule out a possible problem rather than find one. If a heart defect is found, further body scanning for other possible defects will be recommended. Problems with fetal heart rhythms can be treated during pregnancy but structural defects require treatment, possibly surgery, after the baby is born. Knowing about a heart defect in advance will help ensure the baby is born in a medical center equipped to perform specialized medical treatment on the baby shortly after birth.